Biswajit Banerjee

Reading JSON in C++

JSON input files for research codes

In my previous post on reading XML input files, I discussed how input files can be made more human friendly with XML markup. In some situations, it may be preferable to have JSON format files instead.

JSON is particularly useful when the Javascript is used during reading and writing. Though Javascript is not the ideal platform for computational engineering, it has some potential is used for user interface development.

Note: It remains to be seen how useful Javascript user interfaces are when used for engineering applications, though cross-platform tools such as Electron has potential. User interfaces designed with wxWidgets or Qt still dominate the landscape for engineering software.

The JSON input file

In JSON format, our Boundary input file can be expressed as:

  {"Boundary": {
    "containerMin":  "[0.0,  -1.0,  0.0]",
    "containerMax":  "[100.0, 1.0, 50.0]",
    "boundary": [
       "type": "plane", "id": 1,
       "direction": "[-1.0, 0.0, 0.0]",
       "position": "[100.0, 0.0, 25.0]",
       "type": "plane", "id": 2,
       "direction": "[1.0, 0.0, 0.0]",
       "position": "[100.0, 0.0, 25.0]"

Recall that the equivalent XML input file has the form

  <?xml version='1.0' encoding='ISO-8859-1' ?>
    <!-- Container limits -->
    <containerMin>  [0.0,  -1.0,  0.0] </containerMin>
    <containerMax>  [100.0, 1.0, 50.0] </containerMax>
    <!-- Internal boundaries -->
    <boundary type="plane" id="1">
      <direction> [-1.0, 0.0, 0.0] </direction>
      <position> [100.0, 0.0, 25.0] </position>
    <boundary type="plane" id="2">
      <direction> [1.0, 0.0, 0.0] </direction>
      <position> [100.0, 0.0, 25.0] </position>

I prefer the XML version, but most new students will be familiar with JSON and may prefer that format, particularly as that format appears to be preferred in IoT applications.

Reading JSON

A large list of JSON readers for C++ can be found in the JSON webpage. A reasonably good header-only library is JSON for Modern C++. I have chosen to use that library because its constructs are similar to those of ZenXml.

We add a new method, readJSON, to the class BoundaryReader and implement it as follows.

#include <BoundaryReader.h>
#include <json.hpp>
using json = nlohmann::json;
BoundaryReader::readXML(const std::string& inputFileName) const 
  // Create an input filestream
  std::ifstream ifs(inputFileName);
  if (!ifs) {
    std::cout << "*ERROR** Could not read input file " << inputFileName << "\n";
    return false;
  // Read the file stream into a string stream
  std::stringstream iss;
  iss << ifs.rdbuf();
  // Parse the input stream
  json doc;
  try {
    doc << iss;
  } catch (std::invalid_argument e) {
    std::cout << "*ERROR** Could not parse input file " << inputFileName
              << "\n";
    std::cout << "Please check for correctness using a linter.\n";
    return false;
  // Read the boundary information
  json boundary_ps;
  try {
    boundary_ps = ps["Boundary"];
  } catch (std::exception e) {
    std::cout << "**ERROR** \"Boundary\" key not found. \n";
    return false;
  // Read the container dimensions
  std::string vecStr;
  try {
    vecStr = boundary_ps["containerMin"].get<std::string>();
  } catch (std::exception e) {
      << "**ERROR** Container min. position not found in boundary geometry\n";
    std::cout << "  Add the containerMin: [x, y, z]  tag.";
    return false;
  Vec boxMin = Vec::fromString(vecStr);
  try {
    vecStr = boundary_ps["containerMax"].get<std::string>();
  } catch (std::exception e) {
    return false;
  Vec boxMax = Vec::fromString(vecStr);
  try {
    auto bound_ps = boundary_ps["boundary"];
    for (auto object : bound_ps) {
      std::string boundaryType = object["type"].get<std::string>();
      BoundaryId id = object["id"].get<BoundaryId>();
      vecStr = ps["direction"].get<std::string>();
      Vec direc = Vec::fromString(vecStr);
      vecStr = ps["position"].get<std::string>();
      Vec point = Vec::fromString(vecStr);
  } catch (std::exception e) {
    std::cout << "**ERROR** Boundaries not found in boundary geometry\n";
    std::cout << "  Add the boundary key: value array tags etc.";
    return false;
  return true;

I’m not really a fan of try-catch blocks, but that’s the easiest way of dealing cleanly with read/parse failures when using JSON for Modern C++. For research codes, this approach will suffice. An alternative is to use a check of the form

  auto ps_iter = ps.find("key_name");
  if (ps_iter == ps.end()) {
    // Error


Sometimes input/output files for engineering simulations can be quite large. In those situations I would suggest XML with binary data. In future post I’ll show you how to create a VTK XML format output file with binary data.

If you have questions/comments/corrections, please contact banerjee at parresianz dot com dot json (without the dot json).